It leaves the reigning Asian champions bottom of Group A with no points. Netherlands and Ecuador are both on four points.
Qatar coach Felix Sanchez said that he and his team had never expected to set the world on fire, despite being at home.
"Expectations were set to give a good performance and organise a good World Cup, and that is the case," he said.
"We wanted to show what we could do on the pitch – most of our opponents are ahead of us in many ways, but we managed to show what we can do.
"We have to prepare for the Netherlands, and we know it's going to be an even tougher game against them – a great opponent, with some great players," Sanchez said.
Qatar World Cup 2022 squad
Goalkeepers: Saad Al-Sheeb (Al-Sadd), Meshaal Barsham (Al-Sadd), Yousef Hassan (Al-Gharafa)
Defenders: Pedro Miguel (Al-Sadd), Musaab Khidir (Al-Sadd), Tarek Salman (Al-Sadd), Bassam Al-Rawi (Al-Duhail), Boualem Khoukhi (Al-Sadd), Abdelkarim Hassan (Al-Sadd), Ismaeel Mohammad (Al-Duhail), Homam Ahmed (Al-Gharafa), Jassem Gaber (Al-Arabi)
Midfielders: Ali Asad (Al-Sadd), Assim Modibo (Al-Duhail), Mohammed Waad (Al-Sadd), Salem Al-Hajri (Al-Sadd), Moustafa Tarek (Al-Sadd), Karim Boudiaf (Al-Duhail), Abdelaziz Hatim (Al-Rayyan)
Forwards: Naif Alhadhrami (Al-Rayyan), Ahmed Alaaeldin (Al-Gharafa), Hassan Al-Haydos (Al-Sadd), Khalid Muneer (Al-Wakrah), Akram Afif (Al-Sadd), Almoez Ali (Al-Duhail), Mohamed Muntari (Al-Duhail)
Who had been the star names in the squad?
Most of the squad in recent tournament are minor names who play for a handful of Qatar clubs, mostly Al-Sadd and Al-Duhail.
But most notable has to be Akram Afif, a left-winger who can play up front, who played for Spanish club Sevilla as a youth, before joining Belgian side Eupen in 2015 to launch his senior career.
The 26-year-old then became the first Qatari-born signing in LaLiga history when he moved to Villarreal in 2016.
What are Qatar’s fixtures?
What is Qatar’s World Cup record?
Qatar has failed to qualify for every World Cup it has been eligible for, until this year they qualified as hosts.
They have fared slightly better at a continental level, winning the AFC Asian Cup title for the first time in 2019.
The national team has played at various other international tournaments, such as the 2019 Copa America where they lost to Argentina and Columbia, and reaching the semi-finals of the 2021 Concacaf Gold Cup.
Friendlies in March this year brought a 2-1 win over Bulgaria and 0-0 draw with Slovenia which may be a confidence booster.
Argentina | Australia | Belgium | Brazil | Cameroon | Canada | Costa Rica | Croatia | Denmark | Ecuador | England | France | Germany | Ghana | Iran | Japan | Mexico | Morocco | Netherlands | Poland | Portugal | Qatar | Saudi Arabia | Senegal | Serbia | South Korea | Spain | Switzerland | Tunisia | Uruguay | USA | Wales