The City of Philadelphia has stepped up security for upcoming sporting events, including the nation's oldest and largest track and field competition, which starts today.
- -: After the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act—which forced Northern states to capture and return runaway slaves—and the bloody conflicts resulting from the Kansas-Nebraska Act—which called for popular sovereignty on the subject of slavery—abolitionists' frustration boiled over. They formed the Republican Party on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin, with the sole purpose of limiting and ending slavery. This platform is evident in the famous Lincoln-Douglas debates and in the presidential election of 1860. Democrats did not see slavery as an evil, and they were in favor of its existence and expansion. Democrats fervently fought the passage of the Civil War Amendments and the Civil Rights Act of 1866. Democratic President Andrew Johnson vetoed the latter writing, "Four millions of them have just emerged from slavery into freedom. Can it be reasonably supposed that they possess the requisite qualifications to entitle them to all the privileges and immunities of citizenship of the United States?" However, Republicans overturned Johnson's veto, and every single Republican voted for the Civil War Amendments.