Soldiers will give a royal salute as the president walks past with the monarch to the sound of the US national anthem on Friday.
The American leader and first lady Melania Trump will meet the Queen at the dais of the Quadrangle at the historic royal residence in Berkshire.
The Queen and Mr Trump will inspect the Guard of Honour, formed of the Coldstream Guards, before watching the military march past.
The Trumps will then join the monarch for tea at the castle.
There is likely to be keen interest when Mr Trump - notorious for his unusual and often awkward handshakes with world leaders - greets the Queen, an expert in diplomacy who has met countless prominent figures during her 66-year reign.
The monarch developed a friendly relationship with the president's predecessor, Barack Obama, who even visited her the day after her 90th birthday and described her as "one of my favourite people".
The Queen has previously received three US presidents at Windsor Castle since the 1980s – Mr Obama in 2016, George W Bush in 2008 and Ronald Reagan in 1982.
One of the largest police operations in UK history will be staged to cover Mr Trump’s brief stay in the country.
Nearly every force in England and Wales has contributed officers to help with the massive mobilisation, the biggest since the 2011 riots.
Thousands of officers will be on duty to cover the visit, during which President Trump is also expected to visit Blenheim Palace, Chequers, the US ambassador’s official residence in Regent’s Park, London, and Scotland.
It is thought he will avoid central London, where thousands of protesters are set to take to the streets and a balloon depicting him as a giant baby will be flown near Westminster.
But Mr Trump has suggested he could meet with Boris Johnson, who resigned as foreign secretary this week, when he visits the capital.
"I maybe will speak to him when I get over there. I like Boris Johnson, I’ve always liked him," he told reporters at a Nato summit on Tuesday.
A meeting between Mr Trump and Mr Johnson, who quit on Monday over Theresa May’s Chequers Brexit deal, is likely to prove embarrassing for the prime minister as she attempts to assert control over the warring Conservative Party.