The US president tweeted: "The Syrian raid was so perfectly carried out, with such precision, that the only way the Fake News Media could demean was by my use of the term 'Mission Accomplished.'
"I knew they would seize on this but felt it is such a great Military term, it should be brought back. Use often!"
Mr Trump was widely derided for his use of the phrase within hours of the military raids on the country's chemical weapons.
Commentators said the bombing represented a major escalation in the West's confrontation with Bashar al-Assad’s superpower ally Russia, but was unlikely to alter the course of a multi-sided war that has killed at least half a million people in seven years.
The phrase "mission accomplished" came to haunt one of Mr Trump's predecessors, George W Bush.
In 2003, when it seemed US and UK forces were taking control of Iraq, having ousted dictator Saddam Hussein, the words were displayed on a prominent banner behind President Bush in an address from the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, when he prematurely declared the end to major combat operations.
But the bitter civil war dragged on, involving various factions unleashed by the toppling of Saddam, and "mission accomplished" came to symbolise US failure in Iraq.
Ari Fleischer, who was White House press secretary under George W Bush, wrote on Twitter: "Um... I would have recommended ending this tweet with not those two words."
Democratic congressman Ted Lieu last night wrote on Twitter: "What Bush and @realDonaldTrump fail to grasp is that Mission Accomplished for a tactical mission does not equate to a strategy. Far from it."
The first pictures taken after the air strikes show a chemical weapons research centre, storage facility and command post turned to rubble.
The targeted bombing was carried out days after an alleged chemical attack in the Damascus suburb of Douma, which left civilians suffering horrendous effects.
The US ambassador to the UN, Nikki Haley, said yesterday that Washington was ready to attack again if there was further use of chemical weapons.
Ms Haley said: "We are confident that we have crippled Syria’s chemical weapons programme. We are prepared to sustain this pressure, if the Syrian regime is foolish enough to test our will.”
“If the Syrian regime uses this poisonous gas again, the United States is locked and loaded.”
Mr Trump also tweeted: "So proud of our great Military, which will soon be, after the spending of billions of fully approved dollars, the finest that our Country has ever had. There won’t be anything, or anyone, even close!"