The 25-year-old all-star pitcher was officially put on the 15-day disabled list because of a problem with his right elbow. He is expected to undergo an MRI on the inflamed elbow this week in New York.
The decision to sideline Tanaka comes just one day after he had his worst start as a Yankee. He was tagged for a season high of 10 hits over 6 2/3 innings in New York's 5-3 loss at Cleveland.
Tanaka had given up three runs or less in each of his first 16 games since leaving Japan to sign a lucrative seven-year contract with the Yankees in January.
He allowed four runs in seven innings at Minnesota on July 3, though the right-hander was still able to pick up his MLB-leading 12th win of the season.
Tanaka has compiled a 12-4 record through 18 starts.
The 39-year-old Uehara will be making his first all-star appearance since he began playing in North America in 2009. He was an eight-time all-star in his native Japan.
Uehara, the MVP of the 2013 AL championship series and a key player in the Red Sox's run to last year's World Series title, has been dominant in the first half of 2014.
The right-hander has a 4-2 record with 18 saves and a 1.30 ERA over 40 appearances, while yielding just 25 hits in 41 2/3 innings pitched.