Christmas tree controversy takes root in US

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People walk by a tree referred to as a "holiday tree" by Gov. Lincoln Chafee in the rotunda of the statehouse in Providence, R.I. Tuesday, Dec. 6, 2011. The Rhode Island Statehouse hosted dueling tree lightings as Gov. Chafee and Republican State Rep. Doreen Costa battle over whether to call the official state spruce a "holiday" tree or a "Christmas" tree. The governor's decision to call the tree a 'holiday' tree prompted Costa to bring her own tree to the capitol. (AP Photo/Elise Amendola)

PROVIDENCE, Rhode Island (AP) — Carolers singing "O Christmas Tree" crashed Rhode Island's Statehouse tree lighting on Tuesday after Governor Lincoln Chafee unwrapped a controversy by calling it a "holiday" tree.

Chafee insisted his word choice was inclusive and in keeping with the state's founding as a sanctuary for religious diversity. But he angered some lawmakers, the Roman Catholic Church and thousands of people who called his office to complain that the independent governor was trying to secularize Christmas.

"He's trying to put our religion down," said Ken Schiano, who came to the tree lighting. "It's a Christmas tree. It always has been and it always will be, no matter what that buffoon says it is."

Chafee did not address the several hundred people who filled the Statehouse to watch the tree lighting. Afterward, he said he was surprised by the heated reaction to his word choice. Chafee argues that he is simply honoring Rhode Island's origins as a sanctuary for religious diversity. Religious dissident Roger Williams founded Rhode Island in 1636 as a haven for tolerance, where government and religion would forever be kept separate. Chafee's immediate predecessor also referred to Statehouse trees as "holiday" trees.

"If it's in my house it's a Christmas tree, but when I'm representing all of Rhode Island I have to be respectful of everyone," Chafee said after the tree lighting. "Now we can get back to next year's budget ... with pleasure."

After Chafee lit the "holiday" tree, a few dozen carolers interrupted a performance by a children's chorus to sing "O Christmas Tree." The dispute also prompted the local Catholic diocese to schedule a competing Christmas tree lighting a block from the Statehouse.

Rhode Island has one of the largest percentages of Catholic residents in the U.S. Timothy Reilly, chancellor of the Providence diocese, said Chafee's desire to be inclusive is praiseworthy, though he chose the wrong way to do it. He said he hopes the controversy will prompt Christians to contemplate the holiday's true meaning, which he said far outweighs any argument over what to call a tree.

"He probably had the best of intentions but somewhere, somehow we lost hold of the true meaning of the season," Reilly said. "It's all about the baby Jesus. We tend to almost forget this."

But by citing Roger Williams, Chafee is upholding Rhode Island's legacy as one of the first secular governments in the modern world, according to Barry Lynn, executive director of Americans United for the Separation of Church and State.

"Rhode Island is Roger Williams country," said Lynn, who is also a United Church of Christ minister. "He was one of the great champions of religious freedom and diversity in our history. There is no war against Christianity. We have a dizzying level of religious freedom in America."

The state House of Representatives in January passed a symbolic resolution declaring that the tree traditionally erected in the Statehouse be referred to "as a 'Christmas tree' and not as a 'holiday tree' or other nontraditional terms."

Such holiday arguments have become a regular occurrence. The controversy highlights an old tension between the holiday's Christian roots, its links to pre-Christian celebrations and the many now-familiar traditions that are relatively new, according to Stephen Nissenbaum, a history professor and the author of "The Battle for Christmas."

Nissenbaum said early Christians wouldn't recognize the modern holiday, with its reindeer, Santa Claus and 'round-the-clock shopping.

The tradition of Christmas trees was brought to America in the 1830s by German immigrants who were continuing a centuries-old practice from their homeland, Nissenbaum said, though the use of evergreens and candles or bonfires in winter holidays dates back to pre-Christian Europe.

The Puritan leaders of 17th century neighboring Massachusetts actually outlawed the celebration of Christmas for several years because they didn't like the boisterous celebration of what they saw as a minor holiday.

"I don't think Christmas has ever been a settled tradition," Nissenbaum said. "We always look back to the days when Christmas was pure and simple, and it never was."