At a passionate hearing last week, Mr Kavanaugh denied allegations levelled against him by psychology professor Christine Blasey Ford that he assaulted her while they were both at high school in 1982.
Several key wavering senators confirmed on Friday they would approve Mr Kavanaugh’s nomination to the court after a mammoth series of hearings lasting more than 30 hours.
Ultimately, Mr Kavanaugh was confirmed 50-48.
Republican Senator Steve Daines was not present since his daughter is getting married in Montana today. Republican Senator Lisa Murkowski was the lone party defector, but she declined to formally cast her "no" vote out of respect for the party and because it would not have made a difference in the final decision to place Mr Kavanaugh on the court.
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The vote has set the stage for lawmakers to sign off on his ascension to a seat on the nation’s highest court over the weekend.
However, Mr Kavanaugh’s appointment has proved contentious after several women came forward during the course of the hearings to accuse him of sexual misconduct.
Members of the Senate Judiciary Committee received testimony from Christine Blasey Ford, one of Mr Kavanaugh’s accusers as part of the evidence sessions.
The hearing saw Ms Ford give a tearful account of an incident at a house party in 1982, during which she alleges she was assaulted by Mr Kavanaugh while one of his friends watched on.
The judge, who denies all the accusations made against him, gave a combative and at times aggressive defence of himself to the committee.
However, he repeatedly dodged the question of whether he would accept an FBI investigation into the allegations that could potentially clear his name.
Protests were staged on Capitol Hill throughout the day, with some women openly weeping over the prospect of Mr Kavanaugh being appointed to the court.
“Very proud of the US Senate for voting “YES” to advance the nomination of Judge Brett Kavanaugh!” the president tweeted.
Mr Kavanaugh’s appointment to the seat previously held by the moderate Justice Kennedy means the Supreme Court is likely to drift to the right for decades.
Conservative judges would outnumber their liberal colleagues five to four on the court once his nomination is approved as expected.