There's a reason why "quick weight loss" is searched more than 12,000 times per month on Google. In a society that glamorizes diet culture - whether by labeling foods as "good" or "bad," or by making "what I eat in a day" videos a viral TikTok trend - it's easy to become obsessed with the food you're eating and how it affects the number on the scale. The marketplace is already inundated with harmful diet pills, fasts, and cleanses, and yet it always seems like something new is being hyped up as a path to fast weight loss. Recently, for instance, TikTok has been touting Ozempic.
Ozempic (the brand name for semaglutide) is a medicine made for adults with type 2 diabetes. It's used to improve people's blood sugar levels, and according to the website, it lowers the risk of heart attack, stroke, or death in adults with type 2 diabetes and known heart disease.
So how did Ozempic become known as a possible weight loss drug? It recently gained a lot of buzz on TikTok, where videos using the tag #ozempic have garnered 55.6 million views. One video about it went viral on TikTok earlier this year, for instance. The creator's caption read, "where has this been all my life - 7 kgs down" in reference to an injectable dosage of Ozempic shown on screen.
Some of the comments on the video include:
"6 months on it and almost 30 kg down xx."
"34 lbs and now maintenance 🙌🏽 PCOS lifesaver."
"I've been on it for 3 months lost 15kgs :)"
And while you may be thinking "yeah, no way" - the comments about the rapid weight loss results may actually be supported by facts. In a study where Ozempic was added to one or more diabetes pills, adults with type 2 diabetes weighing 197 pounds lost 12 pounds in one year on a 1 mg weekly dosage.
But here's the thing: Ozempic is not a weight loss drug, nor is it even permitted to be used for weight loss in patients who don't have type 2 diabetes in the US, the website states. So though TikTok videos about the drug have been reached by many, it's important to understand what exactly Ozempic is, who it can be prescribed to, and how it may (or may not) aid in weight loss.
What Is Ozempic and How Does Ozempic Work?
In simple terms, Ozempic is a medicine that increases the amount of insulin released into the body, says Bayo Curry-Winchell, MD, urgent care medical director and physician at Carbon Health and Saint Mary's Hospital. Insulin, which is a hormone, is vital, and it "allows every meal, snack, or drink you consume to be converted to a form of energy your body needs daily to function," she adds. So because people with type 2 diabetes often have low or nonexistent levels of insulin in their bloodstream, Ozempic will increase the amount of insulin, allowing the body to better process or break down food.
"This is an important step in controlling the amount of sugar in the blood (glucose), since, without [insulin], a person is left with excess blood sugar (hyperglycemia) that has nowhere to go, which ultimately would cause damage or harming to vital organs such as your brain, eyes, and kidneys," says Dr. Curry-Winchell.
As for how it aids in weight loss: Daniel Boyer, MD, says that "Ozempic prevents and reduces calorie overdose, a major contributing factor to weight gain, by suppressing appetite and reducing the preference for foods high in fats." Dr. Curry-Winchell further explains that Ozempic slows down the process of digesting a meal and targets an area in your brain that controls whether you decide to have more food or not.
While these effects can be seen as benefits for people with type 2 diabetes (since weight loss may help blood glucose levels decrease to the nondiabetic range, which could minimize or prevent future complications, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases), that doesn't mean Ozempic can or should be used by anyone in order to lose weight. After all, weight alone is not a reliable indicator of health. Plenty of people who are considered overweight by current measures are metabolically healthy, and plenty of people who aren't considered overweight are not, as demonstrated by research in JAMA Internal Medicine. Using prescription medication for weight loss when it's not specifically directed by a doctor and it hasn't been approved for such a use can be at best, unnecessary, and at worst, dangerous.
Who Qualifies for an Ozempic Prescription?
Despite what you may see in the TikTok comments, Ozempic has only been approved by the FDA for managing symptoms of type 2 diabetes in adults - not for any other conditions like PCOS, says Dr. Boyer. In fact, while the drug website mentions that the medication can help people "lose some weight," it clarifies that "Ozempic is not for weight loss" and is instead "proven to lower blood sugar and A1C."
Ozempic is currently under review by the FDA to be approved for weight loss in overweight or obese adults, according to GoodRX. But it hasn't yet been approved, and until it has, there's no way to know whether it's safe or effective when used for this purpose. Even if it is ultimately approved, it's something that should only be taken when prescribed by a doctor who's familiar with your individualized health history and needs, especially considering the not-insignificant potential side effects.
What Are Ozempic Side Effects?
While there is no specific data that dives into the side effects of taking Ozempic specifically for weight loss (because, again, it can't be prescribed for weight loss alone at this point), Ozempic has been linked to some more severe health conditions. This includes things like acute pancreatitis and, if injecting Ozempic, an increased risk of developing tumors in the thyroid gland, says Dr. Boyer. Dr. Curry-Winchell adds that diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and increased risks of developing hypoglycemia could also be side effects as well.
Should You Take Ozempic for Weight Loss?
If you have type 2 diabetes, Ozempic can be beneficial in aiding with weight loss, says Dr. Curry-Winchell. However, that's not its main purpose, and Dr. Curry-Winchell clarifies that it should only be taken under the care of a healthcare provider to help monitor your response to the drug and act promptly if the drug needs to be discontinued.
Dr. Boyer emphasizes that people should avoid using a drug to treat a condition if it hasn't yet been approved by the FDA to manage or treat that condition. "Using such drugs may lead to undisclosed health complications, including life-threatening situations," adds Dr. Boyer.
The bottom line: Ozempic is far from a quick weight loss fix (there's no such thing), although it could have benefits for people with type 2 diabetes. Ultimately, if you're interested in learning more about Ozempic or receiving a prescription, it's best to speak to a medical professional about your individual health history.