What is a patient advocate?
A patient advocate can perform a number of services based on your (or your loved one's) needs. A person with a chronic illness or multiple medical conditions will probably benefit the most from the services of a patient advocate. Filling insurance claims, accompanying a patient to the doctor, relaying information to other family members, and scheduling doctor appointments, are just some of the many things a patient advocate can do. However, if a patient isn't able to communicate or lacks decision-making skills, a patient advocate cannot step in to fill that role. "A professional patient advocate is not a substitute decision maker for the patient and cannot speak on behalf of the patient unless he or she is also a legally recognized health care proxy or is a court-appointed guardian," says attorney Johannah "Jo" Kline, J.D., author of The 60-Minute Guide to Health Literacy. (Here are the secrets to finding a doctor you can trust.)
Whom does your advocate work for?
Patient advocates work for you but they can be employed by an insurance company, a hospital, a private company, a non-profit, or be self-employed. "When a patient is hospitalized, most hospitals in the country offer patient advocate services," says Olatokunbo Famakinwa, MD, (better known as Dr. Toks) "If a patient feels confused or has concerns about their care they should feel empowered to ask to speak to a hospital-based patient advocate." Your insurance should cover this type of advocate. However, some patients may not feel a hospital-based patient advocate has their best interests at heart and can hire a private paid patient advocate. Their fees will vary, depending on the services provided; most charge by the hour. To have an advocate accompany you to the doctor's office may cost around $75, but an extended hospital stay could cost hundreds more. When hiring a patient advocate health literacy is a must, says Kline. "That means knowing how and where to access information about preventive, routine, emergency or end-of-life care, whether that's doing research before the appointment or not leaving the provider's office until all treatment options are fully understood." (Here are 50 secrets nurses want you to know about.)
Patient advocates and your doctor
It's important to note, a patient advocate shouldn't be discussing any information, whether it is test results or treatment options with your doctor or other healthcare professionals without your permission. "As a physician, I have spoken to patient advocates directly about a patient's care. However, this can only be done with the permission of the patient to share medical information, in order to protect the patient's privacy," says Dr. Toks. It's Dr. Toks' practice to speak with the advocate and patient present so the patient can be involved as much as possible. Make the most of your doctor appointment with these tips.
You're not happy with your doctor
When you have a serious illness or will be hospitalized for a length of time, it's important to have a doctor that you trust and feel comfortable with. When you're not happy with your doctor, a patient advocate can help. "The PA can try to help a patient decide to them what is important. It can be something like age, gender or the wait time but whatever it is, it should always be about the patient and what the patient wants," says Ilene Corina, president, Pulse Center for Patient Safety Education & Advocacy. A patient advocate can have the conversations most of us would like to avoid and help resolve the issue or in some cases, help find another doctor for the patient. If your doctor does this, you need to find a new one.
Keeping the patient safe
When you're ill, sedation or lack of energy makes it difficult to communicate with the hospital staff about safety issues. Or maybe you don't want to ruffle any feathers and complain about things like cleanliness of your room or staff washing their hands before they treat you. A patient advocate should be aware of things like room cleanliness, nurses responding to bells, and introducing themselves or answering questions, especially when you can't speak up for yourself. "Our goal is to keep patients safe when hospitalized or using the doctor," says Corina. "Is the patient understanding information? Are the nurses explaining the medication? Are the staff asking the name and birth date and washing their hands? These are things I personally look for," says Corina. Here's what you need to do to make your next hospital stay more comfortable.
Taking prescription meds is serious business, especially when a disease or long-term illness requires multiple medications. A patient advocate can help with concerns about allergic reactions, fear of meds becoming addicting, or interacting with other meds. "A common reason that patients do not follow their physician's advice concerning medications is related to fear, and the fear is often due to insufficient or incorrect information," says Rachel S. Boggs, RN, clinical consultant, HMC HealthWorks, a healthcare management company who offers patient advocates called a Care Advocates. A patient advocate may retrieve more info from the doctor or pharmacist so the patient doesn't have to conduct hours of research or spend time on the phone trying to get answers. Be sure to ask these important questions before taking prescription meds.
Searching for a specialist
It's scary enough to learn you have a specific health issue that requires a specialist, but now you also have the daunting prospect of finding a specialist that's right for you. Your doctor may give you a few recommendations, but how do you choose one that's right for you and in your benefit network? You can spend hours reading reviews but that's time-consuming. A patient advocate can help. 'Not only can the HMC care advocate gather information to help with identifying the specialist, but the care advocate can schedule the appointment too, if that would be helpful to the patient," says Boggs. This is how you know you can trust your doctor.
Navigating clinical trials
A trial can be a shining light of hope when you're facing a serious illness but the light grows dim when you don't understand the many facets of it. Ariella Chivil, a former patient turned advocate was diagnosed with Hodgkin lymphoma in 2010 and is now cancer free thanks to participating in a clinical trial. "My introduction to clinical trials was guided by my oncologist, who acted as my advocate alongside my nurse," says Chivil. "Once I exhausted the options at my hospital, I had to act as my own advocate in order to navigate the clinical trial landscape. I had to determine for myself which protocols I would prioritize based on my own research and decision criteria." Now, as a patient advocate, Chivil guides and supports patients by translating the often confusing world of clinical trials. "I help them figure out if they might qualify for the trial or what questions they should ask their oncologist to figure out if they qualify for the trial. I also take some time walking them through the steps of the clinical trial sign up process as well as helping them pick the trial site that best meets their needs." These good deeds help cancer patients the most.
Securing financial resources
Whether you're participating in a clinical trial hours from home or need transportation to your doctor appointment, a patient advocate has the inside scoop on how to help with the costs. Chivil helps her patients find alternative ways to pay for travel and accommodations when the clinical trial site is far from home. "Usually a nonprofit specific to a patient's disease type can provide some financial resources or a group like corporate angels can give them a seat on a flight for free," says Chivil. Errors in billing or filing insurance claims can be passed to the patient advocate as well. They are keenly aware of how to appeal the hospital for billing mistakes and how to get a lower overall cost for care. For routine appointments, patient advocates know what insurance plans may offer reduced or free transportation. Some hospitals, like MedStar Health are partnering with Uber to make it easier for patients without transportation to get to their appointments. In some cases, the cost is covered by insurance and Medicaid. Ask your doc these questions first and save big on prescription drugs.
When don't you need a patient advocate?
If you have a loved one out of town who requires frequent medical care as a result of injury or illness, a patient advocate could step into the role of a trusted family member or friend. "There is no need for a professional patient advocate if a person is able to process information and make informed medical and care decisions and if there are family members or close friends available nearby to assist with the logistics of the person's health care management," says Kline. Keep an eye on your aging parents with this technology.