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At one point in the trailer, the 61-year-old actor uses his voice box to communicate how he has "tried to see the world as one piece of life."
In another scene, he says, "I'm still recovering and it is difficult to talk and to be understood. But I want to tell my story more than ever."
Kilmer also shared the trailer on Twitter, writing, "It feels like yesterday and yet it has been a lifetime."
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Amazon Prime Video Val Kilmer in Val
"As I write this, my documentary is getting ready to premiere at Festival De Cannes. And as grateful as I am for being selected with this high honor, I look forward most to sharing my life's story with all of you," he wrote.
"As a lifelong filmmaker it thrills me to say the film will be in theaters July 23. And as a person who also enjoys getting cozy, I'm possibly more happy that it will be on @PrimeVideo Aug 6," Kilmer added. "Here's to giving every day the opportunity to be the most beautiful of your life."
Last August, Kilmer appeared on Good Morning America and talked about his recovery from throat cancer, which led to a tracheotomy that significantly affected his voice.
"I'm doing great, I feel a lot better than I sound," Kilmer said.
Amazon Prime Video Val poster
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He also addressed how he was handling communicating and working now, as he got used to his new voice.
"It's just like any other language or dialect," the Top Gun actor said. "You have to figure out a way to communicate that's no different than any other acting challenge but it's just a very unique set of circumstances."
The documentary, directed by Leo Scott and Ting Poo, makes its world premiere on Wednesday at the Cannes Film Festival out of competition.
Val will debut in theaters July 23 and be available to stream on Amazon Prime Video Aug. 3.